The geography of Indonesia is dominated by volcanoes that are formed due to subduction zones between the Eurasian plate and the Indo-Australian plate. Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau for its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 Before Present which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter, and Mount Tambora for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815.
Mount Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano, located in West Java, Indonesia. At the summit, there are four large craters, and it contains active fumarole fields. The 1772 eruption caused collapse of the NE flank, producing a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 persons. It truncated the volcano into a broad shape with two peaks and a flat 1.1 km wide of alun-alun crater in the middle, making it look like a twin volcano. One of the peaks is called Papandayan and the other is Mount Puntang.