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Volcanoes in Indonesia

The geography of Indonesia is dominated by volcanoes that are formed due to subduction zones between the Eurasian plate and the Indo-Australian plate. Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau for its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 Before Present which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter, and Mount Tambora for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815.

Complex volcanoes
Information about complex volcanoes

A complex volcano, also called a compound volcano, is a volcano with more than one feature. They form because changes of their eruptive characteristics or the location of multiple vents in an area. Stratovolcanoes may form complex volcanoes, because they may overlap another from explosive eruptions, lava flows, pyroclastic flows and by repeated eruptions, to make multiple summits and vents. Stratovolcanoes could also form a large caldera that gets filled in by multiple small cinder cones, lava domes and craters may also develop on the caldera's rim.

Although a comparatively unusual type of volcano, they are incredibly widespread in the world and in geologic history. Metamorphosed ash flow tuffs are widespread in the Precambrian rocks of northern New Mexico, which describes that caldera complexes have been important for much of the Earth's history. Yellowstone National Park is on three partly covered caldera complexes.
The Long Valley Caldera in eastern California is also a complex volcano; the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado are formed on a group of Tertiary-age caldera complexes, and most of the Mesozoic and Tertiary rock of Nevada, Idaho, and eastern California are also caldera complexes and their erupted ash flow tuffs. The Bennett Lake Caldera in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory is another example of a Tertiary-age caldera complex.

All text in this article is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License
Last revised on November 11, 2009
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