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Dutch hegemony
Fall of powerfull Makassar

The Dutch arrived in Asia in 1596 with the target to take over the Portuguese trade in spices. First they connected with Ternate, the strongest 'clove-sultanate'. Soon the Dutch were the leaders of an islamic coalition against the Portuguese and Spanish, which has bases on the Philippines. Within fifty years this conflict had spread to northern and southern Sulawesi. In 1617 the Spanish founded a stronghold and merchant center in Manado, which supported their garrisons in Maluku with rice. Efforts to convert the population around Danau Tondano in Minahasa to catholicism were met with opposition, and in 1643 the local leaders called in the help of the Dutch. Against 1657 they were leaders over North-Sulawesi and Maluku. Manado became their permanent basecamp.

Battle for Makassar

In the southern part of the island the meaning of Makassar in the international spice trade increased during the 16th century. This capital of the kingdom of Gowa got an extra stimulation when the Portuguese in Malakka surrendered to the Dutch in 1641. English, Portuguese, Danish and Indian agents had factories in Makassar, where they sold and shipped the costly spices which came from the more eastern islands.
The 'Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie' knew they had to break the power of Makassar to maintain their monopoly over the Maluku clove and nutmeg. The VOC would never succeed in this without the help of the close Bone, which suffered from Gowa ever since they tool control in 1644. Encouraged by the Dutch admiral Speelman, Aru Palakka, a Buginese warrior with feelings of vengeance against sultan Hasanuddin from Makassar, gathered a big army, after which the united war against Makassar started in 1666. The army of Gowa was defeated by Buton, next near Banaeng and eventually near Galesong and Barombong. In November 1667, Makassar was paralysed by the Treaty of Bungaya: European traders were forced out of the city and the reinforced tradepost Ujung Pandang was given to the Dutch. In June 1669 fights broke out, resulting in the total destruction of the old Makassar.
The proud aristocracy of Gowa could not do nothing upon defeat. Many Makassarese fled from Sulawesi to fight against the Dutch with the troops of Trunojoyo on East-Jawa or Banten in the west. Some fled to Siam, where they were killed in 1688 in 'the Revolt against Makassarese' against the growing French presence. In Sulawesi, Karaeng Bontolangkasa was the first dissident which succeeded in uniting the country. He made himself into leader of Gowa and attacked the Dutch fortress in 1739. His final defeat brought destruction and humiliation again. A new revolt and new destruction of the capital of Gowa took place in 1778. This long and bitter series of confrontations didn't only destroy the material traces of old Makassar, but also helped strengthening the conservative aspects of the society. Formerly the foremost promotors of Western ideas in Indonesia, they now saw these ideas related to the enemy.

The diaspora of the Buginese

At the start, Bone was the denefitor of the new situation. The Dutch didn't want to rule South-Sulawesi; they only wanted to prohibit that they were forced out of their position in Makassar. Bone, which was at some distance, dominated South-Sulawesi until the death of Aru Palakka in 1696. He brought fire and sword over districts like Wajo and Mandar, which were still loyal to Gowa. Even the Toraja, well protected in their mountainous area, remember Aru Palakka as a threat, which united their villages into a defensive federation.

The inhabitants of Wajo, which may have had the strongest sense of autonomy in pre-colonial Sulawesi, had become active sailors and merchands in the last decades of their relation with Makassar. When Makassar, and after that Wajo, were destroyed, many of these merchants left the island. Many royal houses, like that of Kutai (Kalimantan), Johor and Selangor (Malakka), and Aceh, were born from these late 17th century migrants. The diaspora of the Buginese also formed the base to start Wajo all over again. Arung Sengkang La Ma'dukelling (1700-1765), a Wajo-aristocrat which named himself raja of Kutai in Kalimantan, returned in 1737 to free Wajo from Bone. During 150 years, Wajo was free to continue it's widespread trade across the archipelago.

Minahasa and the Dutch

The Bongai treaty of 1667 has appointed most of the Makassarese South-Sulawesi areas to Bone. To strengthen the Dutch in their presence, Robert Padtbrugge, the Dutch governor of Ternate, travelled through North-Sulawesi from 1677 to 1679. In Manado, Fort Amsterdam was inaugurated as a main base of the Dutch, and the group of islands Sangihe and Talaud were conquerred. Gorontalo and it's twin state Lombotto signed a treaty with Padtbrugge in 1677, but were punished by a Dutch-Ternatian fleet in 1681, because of their independence-mood. Padtbrugge has more success with the small walak (domains) which would form Minahasa later. In 1679 he got 24 of these domains to sign a treaty with the VOC. These states obliged themselves to send food to the Dutch posts in Makassar and Ternate. These sendings finally formed the base of the Dutch system of forces coffee cultures in Indonesia in the 19th century.

Arrival of the colonial power

At the end of the 18th century the power of the VOC was weakened throughout the entire colony. In the south, Bone became such a big threat that the so-called 'Northern districts' Maros and Pangkajene, which were tried to be controlled by the Dutch sinde the Bongai treaty, were almost taken. Between 1811 and 1816 the English occupied Makassar, Manado and other Dutch posessions like Selayar, Bantaeng and Bira. The English also fought against those who were encouraged by them to revolt against the Dutch (The Netherlands officially belonged to France after 1808), like Bone in the Maros district.
After the return of the East-Indies to the Dutch, peace gradually returned. From 1817, Minahasa was a close part of the Dutch Indies, and one of the few directly controlled areas outside Jawa. The conversion of the population to protestantism was done by two German pietistic missionaries, Johan Riedel and Johannes Schwarz. During the 19th century the Dutch Missionary Group founded a good educationary system with Bahasa Melayu as the spoken language.

Picture: Makassar king

In the south the Dutch rule was less stable, even in the areas close to Makassar which were under direct Dutch rule. Only after the Dutch troops had attacked Bone themselves in 1824-1825, the influence from this area was eliminated from the Northern Districts around Maros, which supplied rice for Makassar.
In the 19th century the Dutch got more nervous over the factual independence of Gorontalo, Tolitoli and all Buginese states because of improved communication and the fact that Singapore extended trade to smaller harbours. Britisch adventurour James Brooke, which founded his own raj or kingdom (in the far-away Sarawak), emphasised the weak Dutch power. Due to the second and third war against Bone (1856-1860) the Dutch could announce sovereignty over Sulawesi, however they in fact only controlled the two remote parts near Manado and Makassar.

Dutch rule

Only in the second decade of the 20st century the Dutch decided to get control over the entire island, and to make contact with the little known populations in the highlands. Under the aggressive military actions of governor-general Van Heutsz, small military units were sent all over Sulawesi to hunt down even the smallest leaders which refused to subject to the new ruler. In 1906, all rulers were obliged to sign a so-called 'Short Declaration', in which they agreed to follow all instructions from the Dutch Indies government.
This victory was reached by a lot of bloodshed. In Donggala, Tolitoli, Gorontalo, Kulawi and Banggai they had to overcome the armed opposition. The most heavy fights were delivered against the proud and densely populated Buginese and Makassarese states. The Dutch expeditionary army attacked Bone at first in Juli 1905, in the hope that a defeat would get a common surrender. After a bitter fight, which costed an estimated 1000 lives, the capital was taken.
After the capitulation, the raja, La Pawawoi, was chased and after four months he was finally captured. In October 1905 the main Dutch army got into a battle with Gowa, in which sultan Husen was forced to flea north with his followers. He gave the most important resistance near Sawitto (Pinrang), together with the La Sinrang, son of the raja of Pinrang. Husen died in 1906, still hunted by the Dutch.
After that, resistance of the Buginese didn't last long anymore. A number of important aristocrats of Luwu' got killed in a short fight on the beach of Palopo in 1906. From this city the Dutch spread out in military columns in various directions. They found strong resistance in northern Toraja. There, Pong Tiku had gained an unlikely power base by making himself into the master of the just started trade in coffee and slaves, in which he received guns, salt and foreign products in trade. In April 1906 the Dutch attacked his base in Pangala', but they could only take him as prisoner one year later. In Juli 1907 he was executed in Rantepao. In this fashion, many of Sulawesi's impenetrable highlands were eventually subjected to Dutch rule.

Scientists and missionaries

The success of the Dutch 'pacification program' made it possible for etnographers like the Swiss Sarasins to explore the center of the island. Chrisian missionaries could work with populations which were hardly familiair with islam, which was common along the coasts. In 1892 Dutch protestant missionaries entered Poso. Their conversion activities were the same as those of the military. In Sa'dan Toraja area (the current Tana Toraja) other Dutch missionaries started their work in 1913, but their efforts didn't bring in result for over 20 years.
The 35 years that the Dutch ruled effectively, probably formed the longest period of peace in the history of Sulawesi. The population was mobilized for the construction of a road system and irrigation networks. The governor of Makassar had the power over assistent-regents in Parepare, Palopo, Watampone (Bone), Majene, Bantaeng and Baubau (Buton), while the resident in Manado was responsible for Gorontalo, Donggala and Poso.
Minahasa had a special position among the areas which were directly controlled by the Dutch. The population was mainly christian and better educated than other groups in the Dutch Indies. Because of this they were put to work all over the colony as teachers and servants. In 1919 the Minahasa were rewarded with a partially choosen representative council, the Minahasacounsil.
The biggest part of Sulawesi was, theoretically, governed indirectly, where the Dutch contacts with royals along the coast were used as an excuse to gain control over the inland states as well, even when the mountain inhabitants didn't have more than a trade relation with the coast. The financial management was strictly in the hands of the Dutch. The two most powerfull thrones of Sulawesi, Bone and Gowa, stayed empty. Only in 1931 is was safe enough for the son of the last sultan of Gowa, Andi Mappanyuki, to ascend the throne of Bone. Five years later the dynasty of Gowa was brought back to a past glory in Sungguminasa.

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