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Merapi volcano victims turn to tourism to rebuild their lives

Eruptive Mount Merapi

spacer January 15, 2010 - The crowds of Indonesians eager to glimpse the destruction wrought by their country's most active volcano are providing business opportunities amid a tragedy. People left homeless by volcanic eruptions in Indonesia last year have turned to tourism as a form of income, charging entry fees and selling graphic DVDs to hundreds of visitors a day.


Volcano alert status
· Check the most recent alert status of Gunung Merapi

· 15-01-2011: Merapi volcano victims turn to tourism to rebuild their lives
· 06-01-2011: Mbah Maridjan’s home now tourist attraction
· 05-01-2011: Cold lava flooding after Merapi eruptions hit Yogyakarta

December 26, 2010 - People living on the slopes of Mount Merapi are being encouraged to replant as part of a government campaign to restore land badly damaged by recent eruptions. The campaign officially kicked off on Tuesday with Agriculture Minister Suswono planting banana trees in Batur village, Sleman, in Yogyakarta.
· 26-12-2010: Mount Merapi replanting movement launched
· 07-12-2010: Borobudur temple to be reopened later this month

December 3, 2010 - The Center for Volcanologic and Geological Disasters PVMBG, has lowered the alert-status of the Mount Merapi volcano in Central Java to level three, where this was level four. Lowering the status was only done after careful inventarisation of the current state of the volcano. It proved that the activity of the volcano was still decreasing further.
· 03-12-2010: Mount Merapi alert status lowered to level 3

November 30, 2010 - Severe flooding from Mount Merapi's cold volcanic mud in Indonesia's Yogyakarta has prompted government officials to declare state of emergency, officials said Tuesday.
· 30-11-2010: Mount Merapi's mudflow forces hundreds to escape
· 30-11-2010: Merapi survivors offered transmigration
· 25-11-2010: Mount Merapi activity decreasing even further

November 23, 2010 - National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) secretary Fatchul Hadi says the government has kicked off the construction of 300 temporary housing units for people displaced by the Mount Merapi eruptions. The temporary houses would be prioritized for those living nearest to the volcano's crater as their residences were the most severely damaged by the ongoing volcanic eruptions, Fatchul said.
· 23-11-2010: Govt starts building temporary houses for Merapi refugees

November 21, 2010 - The death toll from Mount Merapi’s ongoing eruption is now 304, the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) said Sunday. Recently recovered bodies were behind the increase, BNPB disaster risk reduction chief Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said in a text message to the Post on Sunday.
· 21-11-2010: 304 dead after Mount Merapi eruptions

November 20, 2010 - Almost 70,000 evacuees from volcanic eruptions on Mt Merapi on the Indonesian island of Java returned to their homes after the government declared some no-go areas safe again, but the emergency response phase of the disaster is still in place.
· 20-11-2010: Yogyakarta airport reopened after Mount Merapi eruptions
· 20-11-2010: Mount Merapi volcano emergency phase extended
· 18-11-2010: Riverside area threatened by volcanic mudflows

November 17, 2010 - Indonesia's Mount Merapi death toll has increased to 273 after long weeks of constant eruptions, officials said Wednesday. Rescue workers continue digging up bodies from the thick ash accumulated on the slopes of Mount Merapi as officials have maintained the highest warning level for the volcano, although experts say Merapi is beginning to calm.
· 17-11-2010: Mount Merapi death toll reaches 273, eruptions easing down
· 16-11-2010: Thousands return to slopes of Mount Merapi
· 16-11-2010: Yogyakarta airport closed until at least November 20

November 15, 2010 - The large amount of volcanic material that has been deposited by the Mount Merapi volcano in recent weeks, mainly in the Gendol river area in the district of Cangkringan, makes the search for victims even more difficult. Because the volcanic material is already settling down for some now, digging by hand is not enough to retrieve any of the missing bodies.
· 15-11-2010: Thick volcanic deposits hamper search for victims

November 14, 2010 - The head of the Geological Agency, R. Sukhyar, has said that the amount of energy stored in the Mount Merapi volcano since the eruptions that took place from 3 to 8 November, is about equal to the amount of energy it stored after the first large eruption on October 26. This is one of the reasons that the danger zones of the volcano have been reset earlier today.
· 14-11-2010: Activity Mount Merapi volcano decreasing

November 13, 2010 - Indonesia's Mount Merapi death toll has increased to 240 after two weeks of constant eruptions, officials said Friday. The National Disaster Management Agency confirmed the number of deaths after its latest count that included additional people who died from respiratory problems, heart attacks and other illnesses related to the eruptions. In addition, the number of refugees has reached 380,049 people have been displaced.
· 13-11-2010: Hot weather slows search for Mount Merapi victims

November 13, 2010 - Indonesia's Mount Merapi death toll has increased to 240 after two weeks of constant eruptions, officials said Friday. The National Disaster Management Agency confirmed the number of deaths after its latest count that included additional people who died from respiratory problems, heart attacks and other illnesses related to the eruptions. In addition, the number of refugees has reached 380,049 people have been displaced.
· 13-11-2010: Death toll rises to 240 in Merapi eruptions
· 13-11-2010: Hot weather slows search for Mount Merapi victims

November 12, 2010 - The Mount Merapi volcano is currently showing signs of cooling down somewhat, especially compared to the deadly eruption it caused one week ago. During that eruption, huge amounts of ash were exhausted and almost 200 people died. The volcano is still very active however, and is also still exhausting hot ash clouds.
· 12-11-2010: More hot ash clouds as Mount Merapi seems to cool down
· 12-11-2010: The big clean-up of the Borobudur temple

November 11, 2010 - The death toll in Indonesia's Mount Merapi eruptions risen to 191 on Wednesday as international airlines again cancel and postpone routes to and from the region. Disaster management officials confirmed the number of deaths since Merapi began making strong eruptions late last month. In addition, over 340,000 people are currently staying in temporary camps.
· 11-11-2010: Rumor: Ancient volcano rumbles into live near Yogyakarta
· 11-11-2010: Death toll rises to 191 in Merapi eruptions

· 10-11-2010: photobook updated: Mount Merapi eruption 2010 (7 pictures added)

November 10, 2010 - A few moments later we made a short stop to see what we should do and decided to head on for a little longer. But less than a minute later we entered a village uphill via some sharp curves when all of a sudden one of the steep slopes of the Mount Merapi appeared in front of us. We stopped directly and heard absolutely nothing except a loud continuous thunder.
· 10-11-2010: The breathtaking view and sound of a pyroclastic cloud
· 10-11-2010: Mount Merapi still erupting, but less violent now

November 9, 2010 - The Sardjito general hospital in Yogyakarta has announced that they have listed over 200 missing persons after the most recent heavy eruptions of the Mount Merapi volcano in Central Java. Most of the missing were reported only after the most heavy eruption until now, which occurred last Friday.
· 09-11-2010: Over 200 missing after Mount Merapi eruptions

November 8, 2010 - Yesterday, after a night of rest without too much new activity of the Mount Merapi volcano, we left for that area soon after breakfast to see what happened outside the city of Yogyakarta. That this was much worse than inside the city was nothing to doubt about. How bad? That is something I didn't know yet, because I had never had the chance to experience it.
· 08-11-2010: Mount Merapi victims buried in mass graves
· 08-11-2010: Muntilan turned into disaster zone

November 8, 2010 - After an heavy eruption of the Mount Merapi volcano three days ago, the search for dead and missing is still very difficult. The volcano is still very active and hot ash clouds like the one that came down the volcano's slopes three days ago are still hitting the area around the volcano every few hours which causes circumstances to be very dangerous.
· 08-11-2010: Difficult search for missing and dead around Mount Merapi

November 7, 2010 - The total number of casualties caused by the ongoing eruption of the Mount Merapi volcano in Central Java has risen to 135. This was announced by a government agency earlier this afternoon, but it is very likely that this number will increase futher because several areas can not be searched and the volcano is showing no signs of cooling down.
· 07-11-2010: 135 dead and almost 300.000 evacuated over Mount Merapi eruption

November 6, 2010 - Just days before President Barack Obama's visit to Indonesia, all international airlines canceled flights into the country’s capital city Saturday after a volcano hundreds of miles to the west unleashed its most powerful eruption in a century. The cancellation also means passengers leaving Jakarta for overseas had to call off their trips.
· 07-11-2010: Central Java train travel delayed by ash rains
· 07-11-2010: Lava from Mount Merapi's latest eruption destroys two hamlets
· 06-11-2010: Jakarta declared no-fly zone after volcano eruption

November 6, 2010 - With Mount Merapi's most recent eruption, which is being described as the worst in a century, the death toll has risen to 122, officials said Friday. Merapi's thunderous roars late Thursday night were heard up to 25 kilometers away as it shot hot ash 10 kilometers into the sky and 11 kilometers down its slopes.
· 06-11-2010: Mount Merapi shows no sign of cooling down
· 06-11-2010: Death toll rises to 122 in Merapi eruptions

November 5, 2010 - The number of dead after the most recent eruption of the Mount Merapi volcano last night has risen to 89. The nightly eruption was the most heavy one since the eruption started a week and a half ago. The Coordinating Minister of Welfare, Agung Laksono, has confirmed this information earlier today.
· 05-11-2010: Volcanic material reaches rivers in Yogyakarta city
· 05-11-2010: Panic after renewed eruption of Mount Merapi volcano

· 05-11-2010: photobook updated: Mount Merapi eruption 2010 (7 pictures added)

November 5, 2010 - Panic broke out among the population after the most recent large eruption of the Mount Merapi volcano late in the evening. The chaos caused traffic problems in which at least two people died. A spokesperson of the Red Cross has confirmed this.
· 05-11-2010: Panic after renewed eruption of Mount Merapi volcano

November 4, 2010 - Indonesia's Mount Merapi on Wednesday erupted again with more force than last week's blasts, spewing out hot ash, lava, and burning rocks up to 5 kilometers into the sky for over an hour. Authorities expanded Merapi's danger zone to 15 kilometers, which is beginning to reach areas not yet evacuated as well as refugee camps.
· 04-11-2010: Mount Merapi erupts again, danger zone expands
· 02-11-2010: Mount Merapi exhausted eight pyroclastic clouds today
· 02-11-2010: Mount Merapi erupts again
November 1, 2010 - Ash rains originating from the Mount Merapi volcano mixed with normal rain reached the city of Solo in the afternoon yesterday. The ash, originating from the most recent eruption of the volcano around 15:30 local time yesterday, forced the airport of Adi Soemarmo near Solo to close down for an hour.
· 01-11-2010: Ash rains Mount Merapi reach Solo

· 31-10-2010: photobook updated: Mount Merapi eruption 2010 (13 pictures added)

· 30-10-2010: photobook: Mount Merapi eruption 2010 (13 pictures)

October 30, 2010 - After the most recent eruption of the Mount Merapi volcano in Central Java, the city of Yogyakarta was hit by ash rains. Houses and streets in a large part of the city are now covered in a thin layer of grayish white ash which measures several millimeters.
· 30-10-2010: Ash rains hit Yogyakarta city after latest eruption
· 29-10-2010: Death toll rises to 34 after Merapi eruptions

October 27, 2010 - One of Indonesia's most active volcanoes spewed out clouds of ash and jets of searing gas on Wednesday in an eruption that has killed at least 28 people and injured 14. Authorities have been trying to evacuate more than 11,000 villagers living on the slopes of the volcano, where many houses have been destroyed, the ruins lying covered in white ash.
· 27-10-2010: At least 28 killed after Mount Merapi violently erupts

October 26, 2010 - Mount Merapi erupted on the Indonesian island of Java on late Tuesday afternoon, causing thousands of residents to flee the area, officials said. The eruption began at around 5.50 p.m. local time on Tuesday when three loud explosions rocked the mountain, spewing volcanic ashes into the sky.
· 26-10-2010: Thousands flee, some hurt as Mount Merapi erupts
· 26-10-2010: Mount Merapi threatens over 50,000 people on Java
· 25-10-2010: 40,000 people on Mount Merapi need to be evacuated

22 March 2007 - After several months of quiet around Mount Merapi, scientists at near the volcano have raised it's status by one point to become two. This still indicates some activity in the volcano, but will at this point certainly not lead to an eruption on the run. From a distance the volcano looks the same, with a small plume of smoke rising from it's summit.

21 November 2006 - For the first time in several months there was some visible activity at the Mount Merapi summit. Yesterday evening between 19:30 and 20:00 local time, the volcano exhausted a cloud of hot ash and stones. This flow reached three kilometers down the southern slope of the volcano, leaving a black tongue-like mark.

Pictures of changes in the landscape
· 12-12-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 2 new images!
· Jump to 2 new pictures

Pictures of the most recent outflow
· 23-11-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 2 new images!
· Jump to 2 new pictures

August 2006 - The alert status of Mount Merapi volcano has been brought down to status one in the recent weeks. The volcano doesn't show any increased activity any more at this moment. A small plume of smoke and ash raises from the volcano at the moment, but that's a normal sight for the ever restless volcano.

Recent developments
· 03-07-2006: Experts consider reducing Indonesian volcano alert
· 17-06-2006: Volcano continues to spew glowing lava
· 16-06-2006: Two trapped in bunker on Merapi volcano found dead
· 15-06-2006: Two trapped after Mount Merapi volcano erupts
· 14-06-2006: Mount Merapi volcano back on highest alert level

13 June 2006 - An Indonesian state agency monitoring Mount Merapi has lowered the volcano's alert status after a decrease in emissions, officials at the vulcanology centre said on Tuesday. Merapi in central Java, near the ancient royal city of Yogyakarta, is considered one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the Pacific "Ring of Fire". It has threatened a major eruption for weeks, forcing evacuation of thousands from its slopes.
· 13-06-2006: Indonesia lowers alert level at Merapi volcano
· 11-06-2006: Smouldering Mount Merapi slows tourism
· 10-06-2006: Merapi activity slows down, but still dangerous

6 June 2006 - The lava dome on Mount Merapi is increasing, raising concerns the volcano will erupt and add to the chaos in central Java after last month's earthquake. Mount Merapi, which is about 60 kilometers from the center of the May 27 earthquake near the city of Yogyakarta, has been emitting more gas, lava and ash in recent days, according to Agus Sampurno, officer at the Volcano Development and Research in Yogyakarta.
· 08-06-2006: Merapi spews lava and gas in large eruption
· 07-06-2006: 11,000 evacuated as Mount Merapi volcano spews ash and lava
· 06-06-2006: Merapi volcano lava dome raises eruption concerns

3 June 2006 - The activities of smoldering Mount Merapi in Central Java province increased remarkably, expelling hot clouds at frequent intervals and sending trails of lava down its slopes, local media reported here on Saturday.
· 04-06-2006: Mount Merapi volcano continuing spewing lava
· 03-06-2006: Mount Merapi becomes more active

24 May 2006 - Indonesia's Mount Merapi volcano showed increased activity on Wednesday, spewing more searing heat clouds and lava down its southwestern slopes, officials said. The volcano emitted 11 new clouds of gas and ash and 76 lava trails in the first six hours of Wednesday, the vulcanology office in Yogyakarta, 30 kilometers (18 miles) away, said in a daily report.
· 26-05-2006: Tourist sites around Mount Merapi reopen
· 24-05-2006: Mount Merapi spews more heat clouds and lava
· 23-05-2006: Situation report

20 May 2006 - Activity at Indonesia's Mount Merapi declined Saturday, but the volcano kept spewing out searing hot gas and lava and remained a threat to villagers living on its slopes, a scientist said. The 3,000-meter (9,800-foot) volcano has been rocked by a series of spectacular eruptions since Saturday, regularly shooting out lava and deadly clouds of hot ash and debris
· 22-05-2006: Merapi evacuees begin leaving camps as danger recedes
· 20-05-2006: Spiritual keeper prays to calm volcano
· 20-05-2006: Activity declines at Mount Merapi, but threat remains
· 19-05-2006: Situation report

16 May 2006: Mount Merapi volcano at night.
16 May 2006: Mount Merapi volcano at night.

15 May 2006 - Clouds of deadly ash, rock fragments and hot gas surged down Mount Merapi's slopes Monday as activity intensified to the highest level since the volcano rumbled back to life weeks ago. One eruption sent an avalanche of debris and ash rolling more than 2 miles down the mountain's western flank, said Ratdomopurbo, the region's chief vulcanologist. It was followed by several other huge explosions.
· 17-05-2006: Singapore Red Cross to send relief team to Indonesia
· 17-05-2006: Mount Merapi volcano erupts again
· 17-05-2006: Merapi brings back bad memories of 1994 eruption
· 16-05-2006: backgrounds: A history of eruptions
· 16-05-2006: Yudhoyono to visit volcano to monitor evacuations
· 16-05-2006: Situation report
· 15-05-2006: Volcano eruption countered with dance and food
· 15-05-2006: image: Mount Merapi historic danger zones
· 15-05-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 4 new images!
· Jump to 4 new pictures
· 15-05-2006: Gas clouds shoot down Mount Merapi volcano
· 15-05-2006: Mount Merapi volcano explodes with gas, ash
· 15-05-2006: Situation report

13 May 2006 - Indonesian scientists have raised the alert status for the Mount Merapi volcano to its highest level, prompting mandatory evacuation of residents living near the mountain. Merapi, a 2,968-meter (9,738-foot) volcano near Yogyakarta city on Indonesia's most densely populated island of Java, has spewed pyroclastic flows since 8:30 a.m. local time today.
· 14-05-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 1 new image!
· Jump to 1 new picture
· 14-05-2006: Villagers return to slopes of Merapi despite threat
· 13-05-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 1 new image!
· Jump to 1 new picture
· 13-05-2006: Merapi Volcano alert prompts mandatory evacuations
· 12-05-2006: story: Myths and mysticism that surround Merapi

4 May 2006 - More than 5,000 Indonesians have fled their homes around simmering Mount Merapi, officials said Thursday, as the first lava flow oozed from the volcano. Lava spilled at 2:00 am local time from a new lava dome that has grown on top of Mount Merapi, which has been on stand-by alert for three weeks, said Muzani from Yogyakarta's vulcanology office. "The lava flowed for about 200 metres (yards)," he told AFP.
· 12-05-2006: Volcano chasers move in as locals flee rumbling Merapi
· 11-05-2006: Evacuation as Mt. Merapi volcano spews molten lava
· 11-05-2006: Hundreds return to slopes of Javanese volcano
· 09-05-2006: Situation report
· 08-05-2006: Scientist: Dome shape of Mt Merapi changing quickly
· 08-05-2006: Molten lava continue flows from Mount Merapi
· 06-05-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 5 new images!
· Jump to 5 new pictures
· 05-05-2006: Situation report
· 05-05-2006: Lava spills into valley
· 04-05-2006: Sultan Hamengku Buwono X: 'Merapi in critical condition'
· 04-05-2006: 5,000 evacuated, first lava oozes from Mount Merapi
· 03-05-2006: Residents ask to be evacuated as Merapi rumbles
· 03-05-2006: River of lava ready to hit villages near Merapi
· 02-05-2006: Volcano grows 10 metres in three days

Recent photobook updates
· 01-05-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 8 new images!
· Jump to 8 new pictures
· 29-04-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 5 new images!
· Jump to 5 new pictures
· 27-04-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 2 new images!
· Jump to 2 new pictures

· 27-04-2006: Villagers asked to leave as volcanic debris begins pouring
· 27-04-2006: Expert: Merapi volcano in no rush to erupt
· 27-04-2006: Study warns residents to keep safe distance
· 27-04-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 18 new images!
· Jump to 18 new pictures
· 26-04-2006: Situation report
· 26-04-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 3 new images!
· Jump to 3 new pictures
· 26-04-2006: Schools around rumbling Merapi send children home
· 25-04-2006: story: Lesson from nature
· 25-04-2006: Situation report
· 25-04-2006: Visitors keep their distance from Merapi
· 24-04-2006: Situation report

Background information
· 24-04-2006: Hot clouds pose deadliest threat
· 24-04-2006:
Facts about Mount Merapi
· 24-04-2006:
Villagers stay on rumbling volcano's slopes
· 23-04-2006: photobook: Gunung Merapi eruption watch 26 new images!
· Jump to 26 new pictures

· 23-04-2006: Gunung Merapi ready to erupt in days
· 22-04-2006: "Red code status just a matter of time"
· 22-04-2006: Tourists, locals marvel at might of Merapi
· 21-04-2006: Sulphur smoke from Merapi rises 500 meters
· 21-04-2006: Situation report, including populations at risk

Merapi in pictures
Merapi from space
Farmers near Merapi
Summit of Merapi
Districts at risk, 21 April 2006

19 April 2006 - Mount Merapi's condition is getting more worrisome eight days after it was declared under an alert status, a volcanology agency official said here on Wednesday. Sunarto, the official from the Volcanological Technology Research and Developemnt (BPPTK), told newsmen "The ready status of Mt Merapi has entered the eighth day and its development is more worrisome."
· 20-04-2006: Java prepares to evacuate as volcano trembles
· 20-04-2006: Situation report
· 19-04-2006: Mt Merapi's condition getting more serious
· 19-04-2006: Situation report

18 April 2006 - People living on the slopes of smoldering Mt. Merapi in Central Java are getting ready to evacuate if the time comes. In Hargobonangun village in Pakem district near Yogyakarta, residents have put 110 vehicles on standby for evacuation purposes if the volcano erupts.
· 18-04-2006: Merapi residents get ready to flee

13 April 2006 - Merapi volcano might erupt in the near future, the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia believes. The number of earthquakes below the volcano and steam emission from the summit crater have drastically increased during the past days. VSI raised the alert level to 3 and villages around the volcano are advised to be ready for possible evacuation should the volcano erupt.
· 12-04-2006 - forum: Mt Merapi's condition getting more serious
· 16-04-2006: Indonesia prepares for possible volcanic eruption
· 13-04-2006: Govt boosts alert level at huge volcano, fearing eruption
· 12-04-2006: Govt bans climbers as Mount Merapi volcano heats up
· 20-03-2006: Villagers living on Gunung Merapi volcano put on alert
· 14-01-2006: 10 volcanoes in Indonesia declared in alert status
· 14-04-2005: Eight other vulcanoes with higher activity

Location of Gunung Merapi, near Yogyakarta (7.542°S / 110.442°E)
Location of Gunung Merapi
Indonesia map

Short description of Gunung Merapi
Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, dominates the landscape immediately north of the city of Yogyakarta in one of the world's most densely populated areas. Merapi is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. The steep-sided modern Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano.

Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. Since 1953, activity has been characterized by extrusion of lava into the summit crater, with periodic lava dome collapse and nuée ardente formation. Summit lava dome growth has continued since the 1969 gas explosion. It is monitored from the Merapi Volcano Observatory (MVO) in Yogyakarta.

More backgrounds on Mount Merapi
Mount Merapi is a conical volcano in Central Java, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted 68 times since 1548. Its name means Mountain of Fire. It is very close to the city of Yogyakarta, and thousands of people live on the flanks of the volcano, with villages as high as 1700m above sea level. In light of the hazards it poses to populated areas, it has been designated a Decade Volcano.
· Gunung Merapi


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