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Volcanoes in Indonesia

The geography of Indonesia is dominated by volcanoes that are formed due to subduction zones between the Eurasian plate and the Indo-Australian plate. Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau for its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 Before Present which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter, and Mount Tambora for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815.


Sunda Strait and Java
List of volcanoes in Indonesia

The Sunda Strait separates the islands of Sumatra and Java with the volcanic island Krakatau lying between them. Krakatau erupted violently in 1883, destroying two-thirds of the island and leaving a large caldera under the sea. This cataclysmic explosion was heard as far away as the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius (approx. 4800 km away). A new parasitic cone, called Anak Krakatau (or the child of Krakatau), rose from the sea at the center of the caldera in 1930. The other Krakatau islets from the 1883 eruptions are known as Sertung, Panjang and Rakata.

Java is a relatively small island compared to Sumatra, but it has a higher concentration of active volcanoes. There are 45 active volcanoes on the island excluding 20 small craters and cones in the Dieng volcanic complex and the young cones in the Tengger caldera complex. Some volcanoes are grouped together in the list below because of their close location.

Mount Merapi, Semeru and Kelut are the most active volcanoes in Java. Mount Semeru has been continuously erupting since 1967. Mount Merapi has been named as one of the Decade Volcanoes since 1995. Ijen has a unique colorful caldera lake which is an extremely acidic natural reservoir (pH<0.3). There are sulfur mining activities at Ijen, where miners collect highly concentrated sulfur rocks by hand.

  Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI)
  Krakatau caldera 813 21 July 2001 (1)
Pulosari stratovolcano 1,346 unknown
Karang stratovolcano 1,778 unknown
Kiaraberes-Gagak stratovolcano 1,551 6 April 1939 (1)
Perbakti stratovolcano 1,699 unknown
Salak stratovolcano 2,211 31 January 1938 (2)
Gede stratovolcano 2,958 13 March 1957 (2)
Patuha stratovolcano 2,434 unknown
Wayang-Windu lava dome 2,182 unknown
Malabar stratovolcano 2,343 unknown
Tangkuban Perahu stratovolcano 2,084 14 September 1984 (1)
Papandayan stratovolcano 2,665 11 November 2002 (2)
Kendang stratovolcano 2,608 unknown
Kamojang stratovolcano 1,730 Pleistocene
Guntur complex volcano 2,249 16 October 1847 (2)
Tampomas stratovolcano 1,684 unknown
Galunggung stratovolcano 2,168 unknown
Talagabodas stratovolcano 2,201 unknown
Karaha fumaroles 1,155 unknown
Cereme stratovolcano 3,078 unknown
Slamet stratovolcano 3,428 1 May 1999 (1)
Dieng complex volcano 2,565 31 December 1996 (1)
Sundoro stratovolcano 3,136 29 October 1971 (2)
Sumbing stratovolcano 3,371 1730 (1)
Ungaran stratovolcano 2,050 unknown
Telomoyo stratovolcano 1,894 unknown
Merbabu stratovolcano 3,145 1797 (2)
Merapi stratovolcano 2,968 25 October 2010
Muria stratovolcano 1,625 160 BC± 30 years
Lawu stratovolcano 3,265 28 November 1885 (1)
Wilis stratovolcano 2,563 unknown
Kelud stratovolcano 1,731 16 February 1990 (4)
Kawi - Butak stratovolcano 2,651 unknown
Arjuno-Welirang stratovolcano 3,339 15 August 1952 (0)
Penanggunan stratovolcano 1,653 unknown
Malang Plain maar 680 unknown
Semeru stratovolcano 3,676 1967 - 2006 continuing (3)
Bromo stratovolcano 2,329 8 June 2004 (2)
Lamongan stratovolcano 1,651 5 February 1898 (2)
Lurus complex volcano 539 unknown
Iyang-Argapura complex volcano 3,088 unknown
Raung stratovolcano 3,332 2 June 2002 (2)
Ijen stratovolcano 2,799 28 June 1999 (1)
Baluran stratovolcano 1,247 unknown


All text in this article is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License
Last revised on November 27, 2010
    
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