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Volcanoes in Indonesia

The geography of Indonesia is dominated by volcanoes that are formed due to subduction zones between the Eurasian plate and the Indo-Australian plate. Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau for its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 Before Present which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter, and Mount Tambora for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815.


Sumatra
List of volcanoes in Indonesia

The geography of Sumatra is dominated by a mountain range called Bukit Barisan (lit: "a row of hills"). The mountain range spans nearly 1,700 km from the north to the south of the island, and it was formed by movement of the Australian tectonic plate. The plate moves with a convergence rate of 5.5 cm/year which has created major earthquakes on the western side of Sumatra including the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The tectonic movement has been responsible not only for earthquakes, but also for the formulation of magma chambers beneath the island.

Only one of the 35 active volcano's, Weh, is separated from the Sumatran mainland. The separation was caused by a large eruption that filled the lowland between Weh and the rest of the mainland with sea water in the Pleistocene epoch. The largest volcano of Sumatra is the super-volcano Toba within the 100 by 30 km Lake Toba, which was created after a caldera collapse (est. in 74,000 Before Present). The eruption is estimated to have been at level eight on the VEI scale, the largest possible for a volcanic eruption. The highest peak of the mountain range is Mount Kerinci with an elevation of 3,800 meter.

  Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI)
  Weh Stratovolcano 617 Pleistocene
Seulawah Agam Stratovolcano 1,810 1839 (2)
Peuet Sague Complex volcano 2,801 25 December 2000 (2)
Geureudong Stratovolcano 2,885 1937
Kembar Shield volcano 2,245 Pleistocene
Sibayak Stratovolcano 2,212 1881
Sinabung Stratovolcano 2,460 unknown
Toba Supervolcano 2,157 unknown
Helatoba-Tarutung Fumarole field 1,100 Pleistocene
Imun unknown 1,505 unknown
Sibualbuali Stratovolcano 1,819 unknown
Lubukraya Stratovolcano 1,862 unknown
Sorikmarapi Stratovolcano 2,145 1986 (1)
Talakmau Complex volcano 2,919 unknown
Sarik-Gajah Volcanic cone unknown unknown
Marapi Complex volcano 2,891 5 August 2004 (2)
Tandikat Stratovolcano 2,438 1924 (1)
Talang Stratovolcano 2,597 12 April 2005 (2)
Kerinci Stratovolcano 3,800 22 June 2004 (2)
Hutapanjang Stratovolcano 2,021 unknown
Sumbing Stratovolcano 2,507 23 May 1921 (2)
Kunyit Stratovolcano 2,151 unknown
Pendan unknown unknown unknown
Belirang-Beriti compound 1,958 unknown
Daun Stratovolcano 2,467 unknown
Kaba Stratovolcano 1,952 22 August 2000 (1)
Dempo Stratovolcano 3,173 October 1994 (1)
Patah unknown 2,817 unknown
Lumut Balai Stratovolcano 2,055 unknown
Besar Stratovolcano 1,899 April 1940 (1)
Ranau Caldera 1,881 unknown
Sekincau Belirang Caldera 1,719 unknown
Suwoh Caldera 1,000 10 July 1933 (4)
Hulubelu Caldera 1,040 unknown
Rajabasa Stratovolcano 1,281 unknown


All text in this article is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License
Last revised on January 22, 2010
    
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