This is the list of the national parks of Indonesia. Of all the national parks, 6 are World Heritage Sites, 6 are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and 3 are wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar convention. A total of 9 parks are largely marine. The first group of five Indonesian national parks were established in 1980. This number increased constantly reaching 41 in 2003. In a major expansion in 2004, nine more new national parks were created, raising the total number to 50.
Tesso Nilo National Park is a national park in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. It was declared a national park by the Indonesian government in 2004. The original area of the park was 38.576 kmē, but the decision has been made to expand it to 1000 kmē. Tesso Nilo National Park houses some of the largest coherent lowland rainforests remaining on Sumatra.
The Center for Biodiversity Management has surveyed over 1,800 plots in tropical forests around the world. They found that no other plot has as many vascular plants as in Tesso Nilo. Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) surveyed forests throughout Sumatra, and also found that Tesso Nilo housed by far the most species.
Flora and fauna
Endangered Sumatran Elephants and critically endangered Sumatran Tigers and Sumatran Orangutans live here.
Conservation and threats
The park suffers heavy encroachment from illegal loggers and illegal settlers who clear the park for crops and palm oil plantations, as well as village sites. Already, 28,600 hectares, or about a third of the park, has been deforested. Even when the park was being established, wood was delivered illegally to Indah Kiat paper mill.
The paper industry firm that owns the paper mill received millions of US$ from European credit agencies, including the German Hermes. In November 2009, WWF announced that the park had finally been expanded by 44,492 hectares but encroachment still remains a serious problem. During drought periods, Tesso Nilo forest is susceptible to wildfires. In the October 2006 fires, 1 kmē of the park was burnt.
The Belgian government will provide 200,000 euros in assistance for the construction of a Sumatran elephant conservation center in the Tesso Nilo National Park (TNTN), the first stages of 50,000 euros would be disbursed for 2011. The project will move dozens of tame elephants to join with about 100 wild elephants in Minas to TNTN in anticipation of unexpected things between the elephants and the people around TNTN due to the current location was considered no longer suitable as forest areas there had been changed into oil palm plantations and oil mining sites.